Emotional Intelligence embraces and draws from many branches of behavioural, emotional and communications theories, such as NLP (Neuro-Linguistic Programming), Transactional Analysis, and empathy.
By developing our Emotional Intelligence in these areas and the five EQ domains we can become more productive and successful at what we do, and help others to be more productive and successful too.
The process and outcomes of Emotional Intelligence development also contain many elements known to reduce stress for individuals and organisations, by decreasing conflict, improving relationships and understanding, and increasing stability, continuity and harmony..
Daniel Goleman identified the five ‘domains’ of Emotional Intelligence as:
1. Knowing your emotions.
2. Managing your own emotions.
3. Motivating yourself.
4. Recognising and understanding other people’s emotions.
5. Managing relationships, ie., managing the emotions of others.
The basic proposition is that people who:
- Are aware of their own emotions and control them
- Are aware of the emotions of others and
- Are socially adept
are more likely to achieve success in modern organisations. It has been proposed that these are also important leadership qualities.
Some other definitions are:
‘To really get on you need to have a high level of Emotional Intelligence; an awareness of your own feelings and empathy with the feelings of others’, Higgs and Dulewicz
‘Emotional Intelligence is the capacity for recognising our own feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves and for managing emotions effectively in ourselves and others’, Goleman and Boyatzis.
In general, Emotional Intelligence purports to describe abilities which are distinct from, but complementary to, academic intelligence or the purely cognitive capacities measured by IQ.
Emotional Intelligence may be described as:-
‘The extent to which the individual displays maturity with respect to how they manage their emotions and information in dealing with the world around them’
In the last year or two, the view has emerged that the presence of a high level of Emotional Intelligence, helps to predict successful work behaviour especially for managers and leaders. It has relevance to the selection and career development of people in all organisations.
THE THEORETICAL 4 QUADRANT MODEL
To explain the model, which describes the development of Emotional Intelligence, begin by thinking about the first quadrant, “Self Awareness”.
Emotional Intelligence begins here, with an awareness of our selves. This incorporates concepts such as being aware of one’s own limitations, being confident of one’s strengths, and being humble enough to admit and learn from mistakes in an open way.
From this base spring the next two quadrants, “Self Management” and “Social Awareness”. The implication is that only when one is self-aware can one begin to manage oneself; also, self-awareness is a requirement if one is to have an awareness of others’ needs and concerns.
Self-Management involves managing one’s emotions and impulses. Inherent in this concept are ideas such as choosing to work for the benefit for others or the company rather than one’s self; setting high standards for ones’ self; being responsible and reliable; and being open and enthusiastic about new ideas. The overall concept is about positive self-control.
Social Awareness involves the development of an awareness of others’ feelings, needs, and concerns. The concept encompasses an interest in others and their well being, and a desire to help them achieve their potential. In the specific area of relating to customers (since almost every role has customers, whether “internal” or “external”), social awareness includes an understanding of, and a desire to satisfy, customers’ needs.
A socially aware person conducts business by developing long-term relationships characterised by reciprocity, among other things. The idea that both parties benefit from this, is an integral assumption for socially aware people.
Finally, social awareness includes the concept of being aware of the mood of a group – a skill sometimes described as political deftness. All these elements of social awareness add up to a picture of someone aware of their social environment, but who may not yet transform this awareness into action.
Behaviour or Relationship Management is the domain of the fourth quadrant, for which the second and third quadrants are precursors. Summarised as “Social Skills”, the fourth quadrant includes skills such as
- influencing others;
- listening openly;
- communicating clearly;
- negotiating effectively;
- inspiring others and leading them towards a goal;
- building mutually beneficial relationships;
- and working with others in teams.
These behaviours will be the most obvious outward signs of Emotional Intelligence. Similarly, gaps in outward Emotional Intelligence may have their roots in the other quadrants